Museum Of Anthropology

Granite Point (45WT41)

Determining Cultural Chronology

 

Assemblages, Archaeological Units, Stationary States & Components

Leonhardy (1970) proposed the presence of distinct stationary states within Granite Point's cultural sequence that were comprised of unique configurations of artifacts. To test his thesis Leonhardy approached his study of Granite Point through analysis of artifacts and artifact assemblage configurations, and the construction of components.

Stationary State A segment of a cultural continuum in which the variations within a segment are less than the variations between segments.
Archaeological Unit An archaeological manifestation of a cultural state at a site.
Component A site-specific configuration of artifacts and other archaeological phenomena that is distinct from all other artifact configurations within the site. Components are analytical constructs that represent both a stationary state and an archaeological unit.

 

Methodology

Artifacts found residing within the same stratigraphic unit, with the absence of sediment disturbance, are inferred to have been contemporaneous deposited. Collectively the stratigraphically bound artifacts can be used to define a range of material culture at a specific time. Over the course of the 1967 and 1968 excavations, 15 of these stratigraphically defined artifact assemblages were collected. The artifacts within the assemblage were later analyzed as a collective set and the artifacts were assigned to descriptive categories (typologies). Though the creation of a single artifact typology for Granite Point was ideal, Leonhardy noted that the 10,000 year span of site use made it difficult to create a single, workable artifact typology. Leonhardy also described the 1968 classification method as “crude”, but asserted that the “created categories were considered indicative of difference and similarities between assemblages and supported impressions of distinctions based on projectile point types” (Leonhardy 77). Once categories were assigned, assemblages that were stratigraphically correlated were combined and the combined set of artifacts were reanalyzed. This reanalysis was conducted as if this set of artifacts encompassed an entire range of cultural material and was not concerned with ensuring typological continuity between assemblages. These subsequent assemblages and artifact typologies became the analytic units for the formation of site-wide cultural components.   

 

Area A Area B
Assemblage A1 Assemblage B1a
Assemblage A3a, Assemblage A3b Assemblage B1b
Assemblage A5-6 Assemblage B2, Assemblage B3
  Assemblage B4
The similar stratigraphic sequences of Area A and B led to the correlation of their cultural material assemblages. (Leonhardy 1970:30 & Fig. 14)

For additional information on the stratigraphic location of assemblages, please refer to Stratigraphic Units

 

To construct cultural components Leonhardy examined the distribution of artifact category commonalities between assemblages. This analysis involved comparing the size of the proportion of the commonality between assemblages to the size of the proportion of uniqueness. If either assemblage had a larger proportion of commonality with another assemblage than the proportion of their uniqueness the two assemblages were combined into a single component. The sample size of four of the assemblages was considered to be too small for this analysis and they were designated “unassigned assemblages”. The commonality between the resulting components was then tested to further assure they represented distinct stationary states (see Conclusion). Through this analysis five separate stationary states in the cultural chronology at Granite Point were identified and numbered in chronological order (listed below). In two situations, Component 3 and Component 5, it was believed that the component’s collection of artifacts did not adequately represent the complete range of material culture of the cultural state and they were classified as “provisional" components.

 

For this analytic process, artifact categories were not weighted by comparative value and it was assumed that the classification of artifacts did not bias the comparison. Some artifact categories, such as artifacts designated “unclassified” and "cut bone", were excluded from the comparative analysis.

 

Component Artifact count Assemblage Stratum Age (estimated)
1 408 C4 1 9,000-10,000 B.P.
2 545 C3 8b, 10b 8,000-6,7000 years ago
B4 4
3 (provisional) 46 C2 11b 5,000-7,000 B.P.
4 248 A5-6 5, 6 2,500-5,000 B.P.
B3 3
B2 2
5 (provisional) 64 A3a 3a 1,500-2,500 years ago
A3c 3c
B1c 1c
Unassigned Assemblages too small for analytic value A1 1 within the past 1,000 years
B1a 1a
C1b 1b

*Assemblage C1a was believed to be a mixture of various ages and was eliminated from the sample

 

Component Categories

Leonhardy's designated artifact categories for each component have been collapsed into the below groupings to provide a generalized description of artifact types found at Granite Point. Please refer to Leonhardy's (1970) dissertation for detailed descriptions of the individual categories.

 

Group Description
Projectile Points All chipped stone projectile points types, unfinished points, point fragments and point preforms
Knife/Biface Knives, knife-like implements, biface fragments and preforms
Scrapers End, tabular end, side, cobble, cobble spall, stemmed and denticulate scrapers
Gravers/Perforators Drills, perforators, burin, burin spalls, gravers and graver-like implements
Cores Cores, core fragments and cobble spall cores
Ground Stone Pounding stones, atlatl spurs, edge-ground cobbles, pestles, notched sinkers
Choppers Cobble, cobble spall, uniface, and biface choppers
Flakes Utilized flakes, retouched flakes, flaked cobbles, cobble spalls, denticulate cobble implements, and serrated cobble spalls
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone Fragments of unclassifiable chipped stone implements and artifacts , unclassified cobble artifacts
Problematic Point Problematic point implements
Problematic Flake Problematic shaped flake
Modified Bone Worked or cut bone and antler, awls, awl-like implements, needles, wedges, hammers, digging sticks, problematic bone implements, modified tooth, barbed bone projectile point, beads
Shell Beads

 

Component 1

Group Category Artifact Count Material
Projectile Points 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, 1-11, 1-12 29 Cryptocrystalline silica (22), basalt (7)
Knife/Biface 1-13, 1-14, 1-15, 1-16, 1-26, 1-29 49 Cryptocrystalline silica (35), basalt (13), quartzite (1)
Scrapers 1-18, 1-19, 1-20, 1-21, 1-22 11 Cryptocrystalline silica (8), basalt (3)
Gravers/Perforators 1-23, 1-24, 1-25, 1-27 13 Cryptocrystalline silica
Cores 1-30, 1-45 4 Cryptocrystalline silica, quartzite (1), unidentified metamorphic rock (2)
Ground Stone 1-44 1 Basalt
Choppers 1-40, 1-41, 1-42, 1-43 9 Basalt (4), quartzite (2), unidentified metamorphic rock (3)
Flakes 1-17, 1-32, 1-33, 1-34, 1-35, 1-36, 1-37, 1-38, 1-39, 1-51 202 Cryptocrystalline silica (176), basalt (26)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone 1-49, 1-59 75 Cryptocrystalline silica (69), basalt (6)
Problematic Point 1-28 1 Cryptocrystalline silica
Problematic Flake ---    
Modified Bone 1-46, 1-47, 1-48 10 Bone (9), Antler (1)
Shell ---    

Associated Faunal Remains: elk, beaver, and river mussels

 

Component 2

Group Category Artifact Count Material
Projectile Points 2-1, 2-2, 2-3 90 Cryptocrystalline silica (61), basalt (29)
Knife/Biface 2-4, 2-5, 2-6, 2-29 57 Cryptocrystalline silica (28), basalt (28), quartzite (1)
Scrapers 2-7, 2-8, 2-9, 2-19, 2-20, 2-21, 2-22 58 Cryptocrystalline silica (18), basalt (27), quartzite (3), unidentified rock (1)
Gravers/Perforators 2-15 4 Cryptocrystalline silica (2), basalt (2)
Cores 2-30 1 Quartzite (1)
Ground Stone 2-23, 2-24, 2-25, 2-31 27 Cryptocrystalline silica (4), basalt (2), quartzite (2), unidentified igneous rock (19)
Choppers 2-26, 2-27 5 Basalt (4), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Flakes 2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-13, 2-14, 2-18, 2-28 190 Cryptocrystalline silica (148), basalt (38), unidentified igneous rock (4)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone 2-40, 2-41, 2-42 76 Cryptocrystalline silica (55), basalt (20), obsidian (1)
Problematic Point 2-16 2 Cryptocrystalline silica (2)
Problematic Flake 2-17 1 Cryptocrystalline silica (1)
Modified Bone 2-32, 2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 2-36, 2-37, 2-38, 2-43, 2-44 34 Bone (27), antler (6), tooth (1)
Shell 2-39 3 Olivella biplicata (3)

Associated Faunal Remains: deer, elk, rabbit, bobcat, river mussel, large salmonid (either salmon or steelhead), and abundant remains of rodents and gastropods

 

Component 3 (Provisional)

Group Category Artifact Count Material
Projectile Points 3-1, 3-2, 3-3 13 Cryptocrystalline silica (4), basalt (9)
Knife/Biface 3-4, 3-5, 3-7 6 Cryptocrystalline silica (1), basalt (5)
Scrapers 3-6, 3-10, 3-11 5 Cryptocrystalline silica (2), basalt (3)
Gravers/Perforators 3-8 1 Basalt (1)
Cores ---    
Ground Stone 3-12 1 Unidentified igneous rock (1)
Choppers ---    
Flakes 3-9, 3-13 16 Cryptocrystalline silica (13), basalt (1), quartzite (1), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone 3-15 4 Cryptocrystalline silica (4)
Problematic Point ---    
Problematic Flake ---    
Modified Bone 3-14 1 Antler (1)
Shell ---    

Associated Faunal Remains: n/a

 

Component 4

Group Category Artifact Count Material
Projectile Points 4-1, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, 4-6, 4-7, 4-8, 4-9, 4-10, 4-11, 4-12, 4-13 66 Cryptocrystalline silica (40), basalt (18), obsidian (8)
Knife/Biface 4-25 2 Cryptocrystalline silica (2)
Scrapers 4-14, 4-15, 4-16, 4-17 4-18, 4-19, 4-27, 4-33 24 Cryptocrystalline silica (20), basalt (2), quartzite (1), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Gravers/Perforators 4-20 3 Cryptocrystalline silica (3)
Cores ---    
Ground Stone 4-30, 4-31, 4-32, 4-35, 4-36, 4-37 12 Basalt (10), unidentified igneous rock (2)
Choppers 4-29, 4-34 4 Basalt (4)
Flakes 4-21, 4-22, 4-23, 4-24, 4-26, 4-28 81 Cryptocrystalline silica (52), basalt (26), quartzite (2), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone 4-47, 4-48 35 Cryptocrystalline silica (21), basalt (4), materials unspecified (10)
Problematic Point ---    
Problematic Flake ---    
Modified Bone 4-38, 4-39, 4-40, 4-41, 4-42, 4-43, 4-44, 4-45, 4-46 21 Bone (16), antler (2), materials unspecified (3)
Shell ---    

Associated Faunal Remains: deer, elk, antelope, coyote, rabbit, and numerous remains of fish, shellfish, and rodents. Whether the fish remains include the large salmonids was not established.

 

Component 5 (Provisional)

Group Category Artifact Count Material
Projectile Points 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-8, 5-9, 5-10 20 Cryptocrystalline silica (16), basalt (3), slate (1)
Knife/Biface 5-13 1 Cryptocrystalline silica
Scrapers 5-11, 5-12, 5-17 7 Cryptocrystalline silica (5), basalt (1), quartzite (1)
Gravers/Perforators 5-14 1 Cryptocrystalline silica
Cores ---    
Ground Stone 5-18, 5-19, 5-20 4 Basalt (2), quartzite (1), unidentified igneous rock (1)
Choppers ---    
Flakes 5-15 22 Cryptocrystalline silica (21), basalt (1)
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone 5-16 6 Cryptocrystalline silica
Problematic Point ---    
Problematic Flake ---    
Modified Bone 5-21, 5-22 3 Bone (3)
Shell ---    

Associated Faunal Remains: deer, elk, bison (Bison bison) in addition to smaller mammals, river mussels, and unidentified fish.

 

Unassigned Assemblages

Group Artifact Count
A1 B1a C1b
Projectile Points 9 4 12
Knife/Biface      
Scrapers 1 1  
Gravers/Perforators      
Cores      
Ground Stone 6 2 2
Choppers      
Flakes 5 7 4
Unclassifiable Chipped Stone   5  
Problematic Point      
Problematic Flake      
Modified Bone      
Shell      

 

«BACK
CHRONOLOGY
NEXT»

Secondary content using h2 tag.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Heading using the h3 tag

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Museum of Anthropology, PO Box 644910, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164-4910, 509-335-3441, Contact Us